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JEFC阅读课文教学模式探讨

03-06 18:09:07 | www.jiaoxue51.com | 初一英语教案 | 人气:421

JEFC阅读课文教学模式探讨是关于 初一英语教案,方面的资料,本站还有更多关于七年级下册英语教案,七年级下英语教案,七年级上册英语教案方面的资料,http://www.jiaoxue51.com。
社会语言学家Dell Hymes 于1971年在《论交际能力》文中,指出交际能力(communicative competence)包括语法能力(grammatical competence),社会语言学能力(sociolinguistic competence),篇章阅读能力(discourse competence)和策略能力(strategic competence)培养学生的交际能力重要的一方面就是要注重整体教学,培养学生阅读理解能力。初中大纲中对“读”这一技能也作出了明确规定:“通过三年的英语教学,要使学生能独立阅读所学语言知识范围内的材料,生词率不超过2%,阅读速度为每分钟40-50个词,理解正确率达到70%。”当今社会知识日新月异,科技突飞猛进,为了能满足社会的发展需要与学生的兴趣爱好,为了能直接地迅速地了解世界科技发展的最新动态,学生必须具备良好的阅读理解能力,英语教学大纲把培养阅读能力作为目标是符合社会需要的,学生一旦具备了独立阅读能力,也就具备了一定的自学能力,为他们今后的学习打下了坚实的基础,因此提高阅读能力是每一个学习者必须达到的目标。


纵观现行初中英语新教材,其中二、三册平均每一单元就有一篇阅读材料,在深化素质教育的今天,如何利用课本提供的阅读材料,即课文来培养学生的阅读理解能力,向45分钟课堂教学要质量是至关重要的问题。绍兴市教研室于1996年6月到1998年8月组织了“面向全体因材施教,大面积提高初中英语教学质量”的课题实验,经过近两年的教学实验研究,逐步形成了JEFC阅读课文教学模式。学生的阅读理解能力和语言运用能力有了明显提高,取得了一定成绩,下面对JEFC阅读课文教学作一个初步探讨。


一、什么是阅读?


现代心理学和认识语言学等理论认为,阅读是一种复杂的主动思维的心理活动,是读者根据自己的已知信息,已有知识和经验,对信息经行体验,预测和确认的思维过程,也是读者通过语篇这一媒介与作者相互作用的语言交际行为,美国著名心理学家Goodman甚至提出:“阅读是心理语言学的猜谜游戏,包含思想和语言的相互作用过程”,70年代以后,Rumelhart的“相互作用理论”(Interactive Approach)和Carrel的“图式理论”(Scheme Theory)又进一步丰富和发展了外语阅读理论,并对世界各国的外语教学产生了很大的影响。近年来,国外语言学理论的新观念在我国已被广泛应用,交际教学法和语篇教学法的盛行即是证明。


作者把自己的思想用文字符号表达出来,这是一个由词组成句子和话语和言语编码过程。读者在阅读过程中,对由视觉输入的语言文字符号的信息进行解码,凭借自己已有的语言文化背景知识,生活经验并通过联想重建的创造性思维活动,获取作者表达的意思。阅读的主要目的是理解作者用文字表达的思想,因此理解能力是阅读中最重要的能力。阅读理解的程度可由浅入深分为三个层次:表层理解(literal comprehension)、深层理解(inferential comprehension)和评价性理解(critical comprehension),即从辨认文字符号的感性认识阶段到理解内容,吸收信息、创造性思维译码的理性认识阶段。


二、阅读的过程及方法


以第三册Lesson94(Ayers Rock )为例谈几点做法。


1.导入:运启发手段,如问答,讨论等本课的话题,让学生适度了解话题内容。阅读课与对话课一样同样使用提问策略调动学生,培养他们的主体意识和参与意识,问答与讨论能激活学生在永久性记忆中相关的知识网络,使他们产生阅读的愿望和心理准备,认知心理学家奥苏贝尔认为读者在阅读时,头脑中已贮存的与读物有关的基础知识有助于对文章的理解,因此教师可以由问题导入课文,了解学生掌握的背景知识,从而为理解打下基础,同时在导入过程中可呈现部分生词,即对阅读理解会形成重大障碍的关键词:


1 Presentation


Talk about Picture A


What can you see in the picture ? Is the mountain quite large ? The mountain is not high,it\s quite low. Are there any rivers at the foot of the mountain ? What is the land covered with at the foot of the mountain ? There are many clouds in the sky ? (Turning the smaller slide with hardly any clouds onto the big one ) Now are there many clouds in the sky ? No, there are hardly any clouds in the sky . Look , we can see the sun is rising. (Turning the picture of the sun up and down) Now is the sun rising ? No, it\s going down. What animals can you see at the foot of the mountain ? Sheep and kangaroos . Can you guess where the mountains ? Right, It\s in Australia. The name of the mountain is Ayers Rock.


At the same time of presenting, teach the words on the blackboard:


low, at the foot of , grass, sky ,hardly, rise, Ayers Rock

Talk about Picture B


Where is Ayers Rock ?


How far is it from Sydney ?


What is the weather like when the plane is flying over a line of mountains ?


What\s the weather like after the plane has left the mountains behind?


2.快速阅读(表层理解即全面理解)根据美国学者的实验统计(Albert J. Harris,How to Increase Reading Ability,1948,Page450)美国中学生的正常阅读速度(本族语)平均为每分钟250个单词,阅读能力强的学生可以达到每分钟500个单词,差的学生每分钟不到40个单词,而目前我国中学生阅读速度(外国语)平均每分钟不到40个英语单词,相距甚远。大纲指出要求能以每分钟50个单词左右的速度进行阅读,提高阅读速度能快速掌握其大意,为以后阅读英文报刊,科技文章及英文原著打下良好的基础,从而达到真正掌握和运用英语的目的。因此,培养学生具有快速阅读能力势在必行。


在学生第一次阅读之前提出指导性问题,其目的是给学生的第一次阅读确定一个目标和任务,实现在阅读过程的监控,由于学生刚开始熟悉课文,并无运用课文中语言的能力,故设置指导性问题的要求是①涉及课文的主题和最重要明确的事实;②需回答的语言简洁。当然在快速阅读后可以让学生做几道选择题或判断题,以检查其快速阅读的效果。

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快速阅读过程中注意点:①要尽力抑制嘴唇动作和低声阅读;


②要靠眼睛逐行阅读避免指读;


③克服回视的习惯;


④避免头部摆动。


2 Drill :


In Australia , the population of Australia is the same as the population of Shanghai, but Australia has a lot of sheep.


Read the text and find the answer: How many sheep does Australia have ?


(170,000,000 . The population of Australia is 17,000,000. There are ten sheep for every person, so there are 170,000,000 sheep in Australia. )


B: Choose the best answers:


1. Bob White went to Ayers Rock ____.


A. to buy something B.to spend a holiday C.to see mountains


2. They went to Ayers Rock ___ most of the way.


A. by land B. by sea C. by air


3. Ayers Rock is in the ____ of Australia.


A. southeast B.southwest C.middle


4. Ayers Rock is the name of _____.


A. a city B.a country C.a mountain


5. Bob and his family started climbing before the sun rose because it was too ____ later.

A.hot B.cold C.cloudy


3.细节理解(深层理解):在掌握大意的基础上,引导学生注意材料的细节。要求学生在利用作者所传递的信息进一步理解篇章内容。并在整体理解课文的基础上,掌握新的语言知识。即①获取吸收较详细的篇章信息。②了解熟悉课文中生疏的词汇短语结构等语言现象。


内容细节理解(注重简笔画、图片等直观教具的运用)


①就课文内容问答(Yes-No Question,WH Question)


②听读课文(先听,后齐声朗读,再自己大声朗读)


③排顺序,线索疏理,就表格,关键词,图片,短文填空等复述课文。


句意理解(阅读材料允许有2%的生词,不提倡一遇生词就查字典)


①上下文推测,理解句意过程中猜测字意,一般在就课文内容问答的同时教生词。


②在问答中没能提及的词汇与句法等在问答后讲解,尽量用已学的英语解释。


Not taking into account whether the students choose the answers right or wrong, ask them to read the text again carefully and then answer the questions on the slide.


1. What did Bob and his family go to Ayers Rock for ?


2. How did they go there most of the way ?


3. What was the weather like after they left the mountains behind them ?

4. What was the weather like when they flew over a line of mountain?


5. What did the land below look like ?


6. Were there many people or many sheep down there ?


7. When did they get up the next morning? Why ?


8. What is the most of the ground covered with at the foot of Ayers Rock ?


9. What is around Ayers Rock ?


10. Did they reach the top ? Why not ?


11. How do the sand and the sky look when the sun goes down ?


12. Did they have a good time there ?


During the period. Teach the following sentences on the blackboard:


Nothing grows there at all .


All around it is sand . / All around him are students.


as because for


I don\t go to school because I am ill.


As it is hot in summer, people like swimming.


She stopped to buy some bread, for she was hungry.


3 Listen to the tape.


Answer: Who is the letter from and who is the letter to?


When and where did Bob write the letter?


When did Bob receive Wei Hua\s letter?


What does Bob want Wei Hua to send him?


Read the text together.


Read it aloud by themselves.


4 Retell the story after the teacher according to the two pictures


( Ss say the next word when the teacher stops)


The letter is from Bob to Wei Hua. Bob wrote the letter on Apr.14th in Sydney. He received Wei Hua\s letter on Apr.11th. Bob wants Wei Hua to send him some Chinese stamps.


Ayers Rock is a large, low mountain. All around it is sand. It is in the centre of Australia. It\s about 2,000 kilometres away from Sydney.


Bob and his family went to Ayers Rock for a holiday. They went by plane.


It was very cloudy when they flew over a line of mountains, and there was


hardly a cloud in the sky. After they left the mountains behind them. Most of the land below looked like sand, but there were lots of sheep there


hardly any people. The next day, they got up early in the morning before the sun rose. They started climbing before it was light. At the foot of Ayers Rock it is covered with forest and grass. There are even a few rivers. When you climb higher, you\ll find nothing grows there at all. Bob and his family didn\t reach the top because it was too hot . When the sun goes down ,both the sky and the sand are red. So it is very beautiful. Though they stayed there for a few days ,they had a good time there.


4. 运用(即意图层次,即评价性理解)


阅读的目的是吸收信息或利用获取的信息分析解决问题,并对文章作出价值判断,提高深层次理解和评价文章的能力,同时也获得用英语进行交际的能力,①小组讨论不仅增加了学生的发言机会,促使学生积极思考,集思广益,促使丰富学生的思维,还有利于教师进行个别指导,在设计这一层次的问题时,教师应注意挖掘文章的思想性,寓思想教育于外语教学中;②教学过程中教师要鼓励学生发表自己的见解,允许同学之间不同意见的争论,创设一个自由,宽松,活泼用英语进行讨论的热烈气氛,逐步使学生实现由知识到技能再到交际能力的转化,学有所得,学有所用,在用中学,学中用,从而达到理解的最高境界,用概括性,推理性,评价性,发散性等多种形式的提问来激发学生的创造性思维。

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Practice:


Discuss the following questions in groups.


1. What is the best title of the passage?


2. Do you think Ayers Rock is a good place ?


If you think so, please say what you like best about it.


If you don\t think so , please say what you don\t like about it .


3. Do you think Shaoxing is a good place, too ? Would you like Bob to visit it ?


5. 巩固(写的训练)运用所学知识,培养学生“写”这一输出技能。


Consolidation :


Lu Le says Ayers Rock is a good place and she says Shaoxing is a good place ,too. She will write to Bob and ask him to come here.


What is her address ? To revise the form of a letter .


Class 3, Grade 3


No 5 Middle School


Shaoxing 3120xx


Zhejiang Province


China


April 2nd,1999


Dear Bob,


______________________________________________________________


___________________________( Write a letter as homework )_____


Yours ,


Lu Le


Complete the blanks in their exercise books.


1. There are hardly any birds singing in the trees,______ ______?


2. not high ( )


3. go up ( )


4. light ( )


5. very high hill ( )


自开展实验教育以来,着重分析研究教材教法,针对阅读文章,因材施教,从听、读(默读(快读,细读)、朗读)、说、写、循序渐进,体现了整体──部分──整体的整体教学原则,摆脱了传统的逐字逐句分析课文,死扣语法,脱离课文内容专项训练的教学模式,改变了老师讲,学生听的填鸭式教学,着力以课文为中心培养学生的阅读理解能力。这种教学充分调动了学生的积极性,也提高了对教师的要求,教师必须吃透教材,精心备课,了解学生的程度和接受能力,根据文章篇章结构内在含义设计问题,并提高驾驭课堂的能力,使学生在阅读课中同样有大量的听与说机会,充分体现了学生为主体,教师为主导的教学思想。在九八升学考中取得了较为优秀的成绩,所任两班中考英语成绩为平均分82.2和82.9及格率为88.1%和89.4%优秀率为62.75和64.9%并位于市属中学前列。


为了更好地提高阅读教学水平,作为一名初中英语教师,还应从以下两方面去努力:


1.教师要具备广博的学识与良好的文化素养。


2.教师对自己的口语表达能力要有更高的要求,而不仅仅满足于掌握了组织课堂教学的一些常用词语,这样才能胜任阅读前的启发引导,阅读过程中的答疑解惑阅读后讨论时的引导分析与归纳的要求,交际法就是要求用目标语表达思想,交际法更重视在阅读后如何互相交流进行综合理解,使阅读效果更佳。


参考书目


1. 陈焰,《交际法在商务英语教学中的应用》,见《外语与外语教学》1998.8


2. 刘雪岚,《阅读的策略》,见《外语与外语教学》1998.11


3. 李秋颖,《阅读理解的三个层次》,见《中小学英语教学》99.1


4. 夏国梁,《浅谈如何利用课文培养阅读能力》,见《中小学外语教学与研究》97.2


5. 佘广安,《阅读的心理机制以及英语阅读教学中应注意的几个问题》,见《中小学外语教学与研究》97.12


6. 胡鉴明,《交际法在阅读理解教学中的应用》,见《中小学外语教学与研究》98.7


7. 吕华锋,《阅读教学中激发创造性思维的提问艺术》,见《中小学外语教学与研究》98.11


8. 黄远振,《高中英语阅读课文教学模式探讨》,见《中小学外语教学与研究》98.11


9. 杭宝桐,《中学英语教学法》,华东师范大学出版社,98年出版 (责任编辑:暖暖的阳光)


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