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下学期 Unit 20 Mainly revision

03-06 18:57:26 | www.jiaoxue51.com | 高一英语教案 | 人气:844

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教学目标

知识目标
一、教学目标与要求
  本单元的复习重点是第15至19单元出现的有关语法项目和日常交际用语。通过复习,使学生进一步巩固这些语言知识,增强和提高运用这些语言知识表达的能力。使学生了解到我国古代劳动人民的智慧及纸的发明对世界的影响。并能简述中国两千多年的造纸史。
二、教学重点与难点
  1.重点词汇 development;press;form;include;describe;come out;throw away;at the same time
  2.重要句型 1)In the beginning they used to carve Chinese characters on stones to record important dates In history.2)It took a long time to carve a page for a book.3)It Is believed that before writing was developed,people in China used to keep records by putting a number of stones together.
  3.语法复习第15至19单元学习过的语法项目。
  4.日常交际用语复习第15至19单元出现过的日常交际用语项目。
能力知识
  会利用所学知识叙述古代的两种印刷方法及造纸术的发展。
德育知识
  注重培养学生的民族自豪感,让学生了解我国古代的四大发明,激发他们的爱国热情。


教学建议

本单元建议

Lesson 77

1.Appoints one or two students to practice a dialog alike this:
  A: What happened before printing was invented?
  B: Other ways had to be used to record information. . . Then divide the whole class into groups of 4 to follow suit.
2. Ask some questions about the modern printing. Then get the students to list the ways of printing in modern times.

Lesson 78 (Oral practice)

  Suppose you were a guide, introduce the development of paper-making in China to foreigners.

对话建议

  1.这篇是有关printing的对话。教师可采取对比的方法,来围绕开展对话,比如:学习本课的对话:
  What happened before printing was invented?
  What happened after printing was invented?
  2.教师把有关的早期图片给学生看,讲述造纸的特点:可以掌握以下的句型和单词,如:come out, keep a record,  carve, throw away. 等等

课文建议

  1. 教师在设计本课的教学过程中,让学生了解中国古代的文明。可参照下列各国纸的制造时间的出现:
  中国:20xxB.C 
  中东  8A.D.
  西班牙1150年
  俄罗斯1567年
  美国1690年
  2.教师安排学生了解研制中国造纸术的发明经过,用下面的词汇贯穿全篇课文。
  1.stone, animal bones, metal pots, bamboo, wood
  2.silk books
  3.fibres of plants

分析本单元结构

  都是围绕着printing这个话题来让学生们学习和了解这方面的知识。对话中主要运用了询问等方面的用语。及有用的词汇如:come out, keep records, back-to-front等用法。课文中同时也运用了It is believed +that clause….The problem was that等同位语从句,动词-ing形式,被动语态, 形容词. +带to不定式”结构的理解。

分析对话

  本对话讲述两位谈的话题有关印刷在中国的发展状况。一是对话谈到印刷术发明之前人们是怎么进行记录。二是后来刻字印刷术的发明及它的缺陷,如:
  使用的对话结构:
  What happened?
  In the beginning they…
  But later, people developed…
  How did the printing come out?
  The next development was to…

分析课文内容

  本单元的话题是介绍纸的发明以及印刷术的发展,使学生认识纸的发明对世界文明所产生的影响。分为两个部分:
Part 1   (Paragraph 1) Paper was one of the most important inventions in the whole of Chinese history.
Part 2  Paragraphs 2— 5) How paper was invented and develop.
    (Paragraph 2—3) Chinese people used stones, animal bones, metal pots, and pieces of bamboo or wood to keep records.
   (Paragraph 4) Chinese people made a kind of paper as soft and light as silk but much less expensive.
  (Paragraph 5) The making of paper was well developed; the invention reached other countries.

  The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years. 中国人造纸已经有两千年了。
  此句谓语动词用了现在完成时,其结构是have/ has been+现在分词。
  现在完成进行是一种兼有现在完成时和现在进行时二者基本特点的时态。由于它有现在完成时的特点,所以它可以表示某一动作对现在产生的结果或影响。由于它有现在进行时的特点,所以它也可以表示这一动作仍在进行或尚在继续。例如:
  I’ve been writing a letter. 我一直在写信。(我仍在写信)
  I’ve written a letter. 我写了一封信。(信已写好)
  They have been cleaning the classroom. (这项工作仍在进行)比较:
  They have cleaned the classroom. 他们把教室打扫过了。(这项工作已经完成)

句子分析

  It is believed that before writing was developed, people in China used to keep records by putting a number of stones together. 据悉,在有文字以前,中国人常把许多石头放在一起来记事。
  1)  本句用的句型是“It is believed + that –clause.”
  It是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的that-clause,而在that-clause中又包括了一个由从属连词before引出的时间状语从句。
  “It is believed +that-clause”相当于“People believe+ that-clause”可译作“人们相信/据信……”。类似的结构有:“It is said/ known/ agreed/ thought + that-clause”。例如:
  It is believed that there is plenty of oil off our coast. 据信我国沿海有大量的石油。
  2)介词by在这儿和-ing形式连用,表示“用……方式”,“靠……手段”的意思。例如:

www.jiaoxue51.com  It is thought that he (has) made much money by selling cigarettes. 人们认为他靠卖香烟赚了很多钱。
  At the same time another kind of paper was developed, made form silk. 在这一时期,研制了另一种纸,它是用丝帛制成的。
  1)at the same time 作“同时”解。如:
  They went their different ways, but arrived at the same time. 他们走的是不同的路线,但却同时到了。
  2)made from silk过去分词短语作定语,相当于一个非限制性定语从句,which was made from silk修饰主语another kind of paper.
  The problem was that it was too valuable for everyday use. 问题是这些丝织品太贵重,用作日常的书写太昂贵。
  (1)句中的“The problem is that…”是个常用句型,在英语语法中,它被称作“主系表” (主语+连系动词+表语)结构。而其中的表语用了一个从句形式(that-clause)。这类句型的主语往往用下列名词question, reason, result, fact, suggestion等。例如:
  The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow evening. 问题在于我们能否在明晚以前完成我们的工作。
  The fact is that he never told me the truth. 事实是,他从未对我讲真话。
  2)句中的“too…for”表示“太……以致不好/不能……”。这里的介词for所接宾语(内容)有否定的含意。例如:
  The room is too small for us three. 这房间太小,我们三人住不下。
  说明:“too…to”也表达同一含意。区别是:for +n/ pron.; to+in f.。
  By the first century the making of paper in some parts of China had been well developed and had become common. 到了公元一世纪,中国有些地区造纸业已十分发达并且变得普遍了。
  本句有两个并列谓语,都用了过去完成时态(had been well developed和had become common),表示在过去某一时间之前已经发生的动作。这一过去时间是通过介词by的短语(By the first century)来表示的。又如:
  She had not finished her report by yesterday afternoon. 到昨天下午为止,她还没有写完报告。
  By the end of last week all the plans had been made. 到上周末为止,所有的计划都订出来了。
  They carved a whole page of characters back to front in the wood
  “back to front” 是一个合成词,作“反面地”解,在句中作状语,修饰动词carved。
  这种合成词是“名词+介词+名词”构成。词与词之间应有连字符连接,如:
  如face-to-face(面对面)、back-to-back(背面背)
   side-by-side(肩并肩)、hand-in-hand (手牵手)等
  这种合成词在句中多作定语;词与词之间无连字符连接、多作状语。例如:
  The boy has his sweater on back to front.
  He came face to face with death.
  Although these were much more useful than the metal pots, they were still difficult to read and were very heavy to carry. 和金属锅相比,这些书籍虽然有用得多,但是读起来还是很费劲,拿起来又很重。
  1)句中的much为副词,修饰比较级,表示程度,可译为“……得多”。能充当这类程度状语的副词还有far, a lot, even, still, a great deal, a bit, a little等。例如:
  Houses are much/ far / a lot more expensive these days. 如今房子贵多了。
  The Chinese farmers are even/ still/ all the / a great deal richer than before. 中国农民比以前更富了。
  注意:程度副词every, too等不能和比较级连用。
  2)difficult to read和heavy to carry同属于“adj. +带to不定式”结构。
  该结构的主要特点是:不定式用主动形式表示被动意义,它与前面的主语有逻辑的动宾关系。因此,如果动词不定式是不及物动词,则要加上必要的介词或副词。例如:
  Those programmes are usually easy to receive and not difficult to understand. 这些节目通常都很容易接收到,而且也不难听懂。
  适应于这种结构的形容词还有:easy, hard, difficult, impossible, comfortable, pleasant, heavy, interesting, pretty等。

词汇辨析

辨析every day与everyday

  every day分开写,在句中通常作状语,表示“每天”;
  everyday合写时在句中通常作定语,表示“每日的;日常的”。例如:
  You should read English every day. 你应该每天都读英语。
  You should practise your English in everyday life. 你应该在每天的日常生活中去练习英语。

辨析contain与include

  共同点:两者都有“包含”的意思。区别在于:
  contain可用于包含所含之物的全部或部分;
  include则只能用于表示所包含之物中的一部分。例如:
  The basket contains a variety of fruits. 这篮子里装有各种水果。
  The price includes the tax.这价钱包括税金。
  注意:与include 有关的including,included的用法。例如:
  We all went to the museum, Lily included. 我们去了博物馆,莉莉也去了。
  The band played many songs, including some of my favourites.
  乐队演奏了很多曲子,包括我最喜欢的几首。

辨析method 和way

  共同点:两者都可以表示“方法”
  way是普通用语,指做事情的方法,也可泛指思想方法、生活方式等。
  It is English way of living. 这是英国人的生活方式。
  method指系统的,具有一定理论性的方法。
  We must improve the method of teaching English. 我们必须改进英语教学法。

辨析at the same time与meanwhile

  共同点:两者都表示同时。
  不同点:at the same time意为同时,然而。有两种表示:
  1)  两个动作或情况在同一时间发生或存在;
  2)用来说明人或事物的一个方面之外的另一面。
  Meanwhile意为同时,在此期间,作为副词和名词,表示在某动作或情况发生或存在期间将可能发生另一件事。它不用于说明人或事物的另一面。例如:

www.jiaoxue51.com  It will cost a lot of money. At the same time, I think we shall need it and it will certainly be useful.    这要花不少钱,但是我们还是需要它,它肯定对我们有用处。
  They’ll be here soon. Meanwhile let’s have coffee. 他们很快就到,在此期间,我们来喝咖啡吧。

辨析in the beginning, at the beginning

共同点:

表示“起初”,最好用in,有时也用at

不同点:

1)后接of短语,指时间,at较常用

2)后接表示地点的名词,用at

3)与at last“最后”相对,常用at

与later对比使用,常用in

  The new school term start at / in the beginning of September. 新学期九月初开始。
  The shop is at the beginning of the road. 商店就在道路的起点处。
  In the beginning, we sued hand tools, Later we had machines. 起初,我们用手工工具,后来我们用机器。
  She was against the plan at the beginning, but at last she was for it. 她起初反对这个计划,但最后还是同意了。

Lesson 77 教学设计方案

Teaching Aims
  Let the students know the development of printing mentioned in the dialogue.
  Learn some words: for example print, carve, come out ,press, throw away.

Teaching Procedures

Step 1 Presentation
(Teacher) Today we are going to learn about printing in Chinese history.
  1. Show the students a picture on which the Chinese characters are white.
  2. Show the students another picture on which the Chinese characters are black.
Step 2 Listen to the dialogue
  Ask someone to answer the questions.
  1) How many ways of printing are mentioned in the dialogue? Two.
  2) What are they?
  One way is using rocks and paper; the other way is using wood and paper.
Step 3Read the dialogue aloud after the tape.
Step 4Practise the dialogue in pairs.
Step 5 Deal with the language points.
Step 6 Listen to the whole dialogue again to review.
Step 7 Work in pairs. (Part 2 Oral practice)
Step 8 Workbook
  Finish the exercises in the workbook.
Step 9 Exercises
  1 .The ________ _________ _______ (印刷的发明)is very important in history.
  2. It s said that another new coal mine ________ _______ ______(据报道)in the north.
  3. I enjoy the animal __________ _______ _________ _________ (刻在石头上的)by him.
  4. Dont ________ _________ (乱扔) waste paper here and there. Keep the room clean, please.
  5.Will _________ _________ ________ (花我们时间)an hour to finish the work?
  6. In fact, paper was ______ _____ ______ ________ ________ (四大发明之一) in ancient China.
  7. It is believed that ______ _____ ______ ________ _______  ______ _____ (已经建立起许多现化工厂) in Chengdu in the past few years.
  8. ____ ______ ______ (据报道) that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed .
  9. ________ ________ __________ (问题是) that we dont know his address for the time being.
  10. He made a living ________ ________ _________ (通过卖报纸).

参考答案
  1.invention, of, printing  6. one, of. Four, Great, Inventions
  2. has, been, discovered   7. many modem factories have been set up
  3. carved, on, the, stones  8. It is reported
  4. throw, away        9. The problem is
  5. it, lake, us         10. by selling newspaper.


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