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American English

03-06 18:57:55 | www.jiaoxue51.com | 高一英语教案 | 人气:996

American English是关于 高一英语教案,方面的资料,本站还有更多关于人教版高一英语教案,高一英语必修2教案,高一英语下学期教案方面的资料,http://www.jiaoxue51.com。

教学目标

1. vocabulary:
difficulty, pronounce, fall(n.), ask...for, pardon, medicine, however, British, a great many, store, and so on, the same as, more or less, reason, Europe, cent, Indian, cookbook, change...into, explain

2. Oral English:
  1) Would you please say that again more slowly ? 你能慢慢地再说一遍吗?
  2) Pardon ? 你说什么?
  3) Im sorry . I know only a little English / I dont quite follow you.
   抱歉,我英语懂得很少,我不太明白你的意思。
  4) How do you pronounce / spell ... ? 你怎么读/拼......
  5) I have some difficulty in doing sth. 我在做...方面有困难.
  6) What does ... mean ? ... 是什么意思?

3. 语法:学习直接引语和间接引语

教学建议

对话分析

The dialogue is quite simple, so the teacher can encourage the Ss to act it out in class. Also the students can make up some related dialogues. when it comes to the text, the content is quite dull.

To make it more interesting, the teacher can tell a joke in the beginning. When dealing with the content of the text, the teacher can focus on some exercises, such as Choose and Fill in blanks.

重点知识讲解

1.difficulty n.困难,艰难,难事;有可数名词和不可数名词两种用法

①用作不可数名词,意为困难、艰难,常用在以下句型中

have no/find(some, any, much) difficulty with sth./(in) doing sth.

There is no (some, any, much) difficulty (in) doing sth.

I had no difficulty in learning English.

There was much difficulty (in) explaining it to him.

②用作可数名词,表示具体的困难,意为难事,难点,困境,难处。

This book is full of difficulties.

In face of so many difficulties, we never appeared to be afraid.

2. come about

   这是一个不及物动词短语,其意思是(happen)“发生”,“造成”。与happen一样,没有被动语态。

(1)You failed the exam. How did it come about? 这次考试你怎么不及格?

(2)Sometimes it is hard to tell how a quarrel (争吵) comes about.

有时候很难说出口角是怎么引起的。

△联想 come 构成的短语有:

 come across偶然遇到;come to do 开始做……; come along一道去、快点、过来;come true 变成现实;come from 来自、出生于;come near 临近;come to an end 结束;come down 下来、流传下来;come into use 开始使用;come back 回来、回想;come into power 上台;come out 出来、长出、被出版;come into being 产生;come on 进行、进展、赶快、来!加油;come to oneself 苏醒;come up 发生、被提出、长出、发芽。

3. And so on

该词组用于列举事物,一般放在句末(但是不完全列举。)意为“等等”,“如此等等”。如:

(1)Vegetables are potatoes, beas, cabbages and so on.蔬来有土豆、豆子、白莱等等。

(2)They asked what my name was, where I lived, who my parents were, and so on..

他们问我姓什名谁,家住哪里,父母是何人,等等。

4. more or less

这是个固定词组,意为( about, almost, nearly) 大约,或多或少,大体上。在句中作状语,可放在修饰词之前,也可放在句末,用逗号与句子分开。例如:

  (1)The work is more or less finished. 这项工作大体完成了。

  (2)The trip will take ten days more or less. 这次旅行约需十天时间。                  

  (3)I hope my advice will be more or less helpful to you.

            希望我的建议对你多少有些帮助。

5. When do you take your next exams?

  1) 注意exam / examination 同动词的搭配:

take / have an exam (学生参加考试);give(students)an exam 老师考学生;

hold an exam 举行考试;          pass an exam 考试合格;

fail (in ) an exam 考试不合格

2) 注意本句中用一般现在时表示一般将来时。有这种用法的动词有:take, begin, get, go, start, leave等,表示按计划或时刻表将要发生的事情。如:

When does the winter holiday begin? 寒假什么时候开始?

The plane takes off at 9:30 a. m. 飞机上午九点三十分起飞。

6. I have some difficulty in pronouncing some of the words in English。

I have some difficulties with pronunciation.

difficulty即可作不可数名词,又可作可数名词,意为“困难”,用于下列句式:

a. have + difficulty + (in) doing sth. 其中介词in可省略。它表示“在做某事时有困难”、“在……方面费劲”。difficulty前可用some, great, much, little, no等词饰饰。例如:

You ll have no difficulty ( in ) finding his house, for he is well known in this area.

b. have + difficulty/difficulties + with sth. 名词前用介词with,不用in, 且with不可省略。例如:

Im having some difficulty with my daughters maths homework.

c. There is no (some, much, any) difficulty (in) doing sth.

d. do sth. with/without any difficulty

e .find difficulty (in) doing sth.

例如:

(1)There was much difficulty (in) explaining it to him.

     要给他解释清楚真费了不少劲。

(2)I find some difficulty (in) learning Russian. 我觉得学俄语有些困难。

(3)He finished his homework without (any) difficulty.

    他毫不费力地完成了家庭作业。

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(4)His English was very bad and he spoke with difficulty.

 他的英语很差,说起来很吃力。

7. At first, the language stayed the same as th language used in Britain. 起初这种语言同在英国使用的语言仍然相同。

But Americans still talk about “fall” just as people do in some parts of western English. 但是美国人还是说 “fall” , 就像英格兰西部有些地区的人说 “fall”一样。

1)stay 在句中相当于连系动词,意为“保持某种状态”;相当于keep的意思,通常接形容词作表语,无被动语态。它还可以用作不及物动词,表示“停留”等,例如:

The shop stayed open till 6 o’clock. 这家商店一直营业到六点。

句式一:stay + 形,维持(……的状态)。如:

The windows stayed open all the night.

句式二:stay(+副),停留(在某处)。如:

You should stay in bed.

句式三:stay (+ 副),留宿,客居,暂住。如:

How long did you stay in New York?

2)the same as / the same …as 是“和……一样”的意思。在same之前总要加定冠词the。 as 是关系代词,引导限制性定语从句,as 在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语。as 从句可用省略形式。如:

This is the same material as is used in building the bridge. 这和建那座桥所用的材料一样。(as 作主语)

3)just as 意为“正如,恰似”,as 是连词,引导一个方式状语从句,有时也可引导表语从句。如:

She loves singing just as her mother did. 她喜欢唱歌,正像她妈妈过去喜欢唱歌一样。

Jack didn’t feel just as his wife did. 汤姆并不像他妻子感受的那样。(引导表语从句。)

8.Would you please say that again more slowly? = Will you please say that again more slowly? = Please say that again more slowly.

“Would/will you please. . . ?”是婉转提出要求时的礼貌用语,用would比用will更加礼貌,多用于对陌生人或长辈说话的场合。注意该句型后接动词原形,肯定回答:Yes, I will. / Sure, / All right. Certainly. / Yes, please. 否定回答:No, I won’t. / I’m sorry, but I can’t. / No, thank you.

9.In China about seven people in ten speak putonghua.

   in 作介词,表示比例、比率,例如:

   One in ten students could solve the problem.

10.I know only a little English. 我只懂一点英语.
little 作少解,有否定的意味,即少得几乎没有(almost no)的意思,a little虽然也作少解,但有肯定的意味,即虽少但还有一点的意思.而only a little 却是否定的.和little 同义,在非正式文体中一般用only a little来代替little.
试比较下列对话:
A:Im thirsty. Can you give me some water to drink? 我渴了,给我一点水喝好吗?
B:Sure. There is a little water in the bottle. Take it.好的,瓶里还有一点水,拿去吧。
A:Im thirsty. Can you give me some water to drink?我渴了,给我一点水喝好吗?
B:Im sorry, but there is little / only a little water in the bottle.
      对不起,瓶里没有什么水了。

1.no longer 与no more

   这是一对近义词,都作“不再”、“再也不”(for no further period of time )解,一般可通用。

  1)no more一般位于句末或句首,而no longer则可用于实义动词之前,助动词或连系动词之后,或者位于句尾。例如:

(1)He still smoked, but he drank no more. 他还在吸烟,但不再喝酒了。

(2)They are no longer staying with us.  他们不再跟我们住在一起。

2) no more = not. . . any more, no longer = not. . . any longer. no more/ longer 是正式用法,not. . . any more/longer 比较自然。如:

(1)I do not see him any more/any longer.我不能再看到他了。

(2)I did not feel sick any more. 我不再感到恶心了。

3)no more (not. ..any more) 强调数量和程度,表示动作不再重复,一般指把现在的情况将来对比,即“现在如何如何,将来不再这样(now, but not in the future)”. no longer(not. . .any longer) 强调时间,表示动作不再延缓,一般是现在的情况同过去对比,即“过去如何如何,现在不再这样(once, but not now) 。”
例如:

(1)She is not a child any longer.

= She is no longer a child. 她再也不是个孩子了。

(2)I wont do such stupid things any more.

= Ill do such stupid things no more.  我(今后)再也不干这种蠢事了。

2. 辨析          however / but / while

 从词义上看,三词相近,均表示上下文之间语气的转折,其中but语气强烈,译作“但是”;从词性上看,however作“然而、可是”解时是副词,而but与while是连词,用于连接并列分句;从句子位置看,but与while一般位于两个并列分句的中间,however位置灵活,可位于可首,句中或句尾,而且必须用“,”与句子分开。例如:

We love peace, but we are not afraid of war.

This plan is all right; however, it can be made better.

I’m interested in sports while my brother is fond of music.

   He is young, but he knows a lot. 他尚年幼,但懂得却多。

Later, however, he decided to go. 可后来他决定去了。

3.A great many words and expressions have come into the language from American English…

英语中表“许多”的词组有很多,一般可按其用法分为以下三类:

 修饰可名词:many; a great (good, large ) number of; quite a few; numbers of; many a ; a great (good) many; scores of 等。many a ,其意近似于many , 但many a 后边接可数名词单数,如:

Many a student has such a question.

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 修饰不可数名词:much; a great (good ) deal of; a large amount of; large amounts of等。

 既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词:a lot of (lots of ); plenty of; a large quantity of; large quantities of 等。

plenty of, a lot of / lots of常用在肯定句中,否定句中多用many或much 。如:

Today I haven’t much work to do. 今天我没有许多事做。

4. Now ask your partner for the answers.

句式“ask + 名(人)+ for +名”意为“向(某人)请求……”;“向(某人)要求……”,例如:

He asked his parents for a motorcycle.

比较下列句式:

句式一:ask +for+名,向……要,例如:

After dinner I asked for coffee.

句式二:ask +名(+ for/to+ 名), 请……,例如:

I have been asked for (to) dinner tonight.

句式三:ask + 名(人)+副词+for / to + 名,请……,例如:

He asked me in for a cup of coffee.

I asked her out to lunch.

句式四:ask for + 人,要求(人)来(接电话),例如:

A Mr Simpson from Sydney is asking for the manager.         

5.as用法小结

1)as用作介词,意为“作为”,“如同”。as引导的介词短语大多作状语,有时也可用作定语、定语补足语等。例如:

(1)It was Paul’s first important lesson as a student of Chemistry and he never forgot it.

(2)Dont treat me as a child. 别把我当小孩看待。

(3)He is well-known as a writer. 作为一名作家他很出名。

2)as作连词,有以下几种不同含义:

a. 引导时间状语从句,意为“当……时候”,“随着……”“一边……一边……”。如:

He saw his daughter as he was getting off the bus.

 他下车看见了他的女儿。(两个短暂动作几乎同时发生)

b. 引导原因状语从句,意为“因为”,“既然”,as = since(语气比because弱)。as原因状语从句多位于主句前。如:

(1)As (Since) you are not feeling well, you may stay home.

   既然你不太舒服,你就留在家里吧。

(2)As he was ill, I went without him. 因为他有病,我独自去了。

  c. 引导比较状语从句,“像……一样。”常用于as(副词)…as和not as …as结构中。如:

(3)The book is not so easy as you imagine. 这本书不像你想象的那么容易。

d. 引导方式状语从句,意为“按照”、“如同”。

 She loves singing just as her mother did.她正像她母亲一样喜欢唱歌。

3)as用作关系代词,引导定语从句,意为“像……的人/物”,“如……那样。”主要用于such …as, the same …as 结构中,在从句中作主语、宾语、表语。例如:

Such books as you bought yesterday are helpful to children.像你昨天买的那些书对孩子们有益。

直接引语和间接引语的区别

1.下列情况中,直接引语变间接引语时,时态不变:

1)直接引语中的过去完(进行)时在间接引语中时态不变

例如:Tom said, “My brother had been a worker for two years before he came here.”

Tom said that his brother had been a worker for two years before he came here.

2) 间接引语中动词所表示的动作或状态说话时仍继续进行或存在进,其时态不变。

例如:”I am eight.” the boy said.   The boy said that he is eight.

3) 直接引语中,如果表示过去的时间状语用来表示事态发生或存在的具体时间,变间接引语时,其谓语动词仍用一般过去时。

4)转述习惯性动作、客观事实或科学真理时,其时态不变。

5)引述动词为现在时,间接引语中的动词可保持原来时态。

例如:He says, “I have accepted her invitation.”   He says that he has accepted her invitation.

6).如果直接引语用虚拟语气,变间接引语时,仍用原来的动词形式。

例如:’I insist that you give up smoking,’ said the doctor.

The doctor insisted that he give up smoking.

7).时间状语从句中的一般过去时或过去进行时,在间接引语中保持不变。

8).如果直接引语是以would like 作谓语的特殊疑问句,间接引语中would like 不变;如果直接引语是一般疑问句,like 之后接动名词或名词作宾语,间接引语中would like也不变。

2.直接引语是祈使句变间接引语,通常将say 改为ask 或tell, order等词,构成ask (tell, order) sb. to do sth.结构。原祈使句如果是否定的,要在不定式结构前加not,原祈使句中如果带有please一词,间接引语也不再使用。

例如:‘Please open the second window,’ he said.    He asked me to open the second window.

2.直接引语是感叹句,变间接引语时,谓语动词应用一个能表达原意的词语。

例如:She said, “What a lovely day.”  She remarked with joy that it was such a lovely day.

 


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