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历年六级阅读真题练习[4]

03-14 16:16:39 | www.jiaoxue51.com | 英语四六级考试 | 人气:310

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Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

Imagine a world in which there was suddenly no emotion-a world in which human beings could feel no love or happiness, no terror or hate. Try to imagine the consequences of such a transformation. People might not be able to stay alive: knowing neither joy nor pleasure, anxiety nor fear, they would be as likely to repeat acts that hurt them as acts that were beneficial. They could not learn: they could not benefit from experience because this emotionless world would lack rewards and punishments. Society would soon disappear: people would be as likely to harm one another as to provide help and support. Human relationships would not exist: in a world without friends or enemies, there could be no marriage, affection among companions, or bonds among members of groups. Society's economic underpinnings(支柱)would be destroyed; since earning $10 million would be no more pleasant than earning $10, there would be no incentive to work. In fact, there would be no incentives of any kind. For as we will see, incentives imply a capacity to enjoy them.
In such a world, the chances that the human species would survive are next to zero, because emotions are the basic instrument of our survival and adaptation. Emotions structure the world for us in important ways. As individuals, we categorize objects on the basis of our emotions. True we consider the length, shape, size, or texture, but an object's physical aspects are less important than what it has done or can do to us-hurt us, surprise us, anger us or make us joyful. We also use categorizations colored by emotions in our families, communities and overall society. Out of our emotional experiences with objects and events comes a social feeling of agreement that certain things and actions are "good" and others are "bad", and we apply these categories to every aspect of our social life-from what foods we eat and what clothes we wear to how we keep promises and which people our group will accept. In fact, society exploits our emotional reactions and attitudes, such as loyalty, morality, pride, shame, guilt, fear and greed, in order to maintain itself. It gives high rewards to individuals who perform important tasks such as surgery, makes heroes out of individuals for unusual or dangerous achievements such as flying fighter planes in a war, and used the legal and penal(刑法的)system to make people afraid to engage in antisocial acts.
31. The reason why people might not be able to stay alive in a world without emotion is that _________.
A) they would not be able to tell the texture of objects
B) they would not know what was beneficial and what was harmful to them
C) they would not be happy with a life without love
D) they would do things that hurt each other's feelings
32. According to the passage, people's learning activities are possible because they ________.
A) believe that emotions are fun

, www.jiaoxue51.comdamental for them to stay alive
B) benefit from providing help and support to one another
C) enjoy being rewarded for doing the right thing
D) know what is vital to the progress of society
33. It can be inferred from the passage that the economic foundation of society is dependent on ________.
A) the ability to make money
B) the will to work for pleasure
C) the capacity to enjoy incentives
D) the categorizations of our emotional experience
34. Emotions are significant for man's survival and adaptation because ________.
A) they provide the means by which people view the size or shape of objects


Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

Imagine a world in which there was suddenly no emotion-a world in which human beings could feel no love or happiness, no terror or hate. Try to imagine the consequences of such a transformation. People might not be able to stay alive: knowing neither joy nor pleasure, anxiety nor fear, they would be as likely to repeat acts that hurt them as acts that were beneficial. They could not learn: they could not benefit from experience because this emotionless world would lack rewards and punishments. Society would soon disappear: people would be as likely to harm one another as to provide help and support. Human relationships would not exist: in a world without friends or enemies, there could be no marriage, affection among companions, or bonds among members of groups. Society's economic underpinnings(支柱)would be destroyed; since earning $10 million would be no more pleasant than earning $10, there would be no incentive to work. In fact, there would be no incentives of any kind. For as we will see, incentives imply a capacity to enjoy them.
In such a world, the chances that the human species would survive are next to zero, because emotions are the basic instrument of our survival and adaptation. Emotions structure the world for us in important ways. As individuals, we categorize obj


ects on the basis of our emotions. True we consider the length, shape, size, or texture, but an object's physical aspects are less important than what it has done or can do to us-hurt us, surprise us, anger us or make us joyful. We also use categorizations colored by emotions in our families, communities and overall society. Out of our emotional experiences with objects and events comes a social feeling of agreement that certain things and actions are "good" and others are "bad", and we apply these categories to every aspect of our social life-from what foods we eat and what clothes we wear to how we keep promises and which people our group will accept. In fact, society exploits our emotional reactions and attitudes, such as loyalty, morality, pride, shame, guilt, fear and greed, in order to maintain itself. It gives high rewards to individuals who perform important task

, www.jiaoxue51.coms such as surgery, makes heroes out of individuals for unusual or dangerous achievements such as flying fighter planes in a war, and used the legal and penal(刑法的)system to make people afraid to engage in antisocial acts.
31. The reason why people might not be able to stay alive in a world without emotion is that _________.
A) they would not be able to tell the texture of objects
B) they would not know what was beneficial and what was harmful to them
C) they would not be happy with a life without love
D) they would do things that hurt each other's feelings
32. According to the passage, people's learning activities are possible because they ________.
A) believe that emotions are fundamental for them to stay alive
B) benefit from providing help and support to one another
C) enjoy being rewarded for doing the right thing
D) know what is vital to the progress of society
33. It can be inferred from the passage that the economic foundation of society is dependent on ________.
A) the ability to make money
B) the will to work for pleasure
C) the capacity to enjoy incentives
D) the categorizations of our emotional experience
34. Emotions are significant for man's survival and adaptation because ________.
A) they provide the means by which people view the size or shape of objects


B) they are the basis for the social feeling of agreement by which society is maintained
C) they encourage people to perform dangerous achievements
D) they generate more love than hate among people
35. The emotional aspects of an object are more important than its physical aspects in that they __________.
A) help society exploit its members for profit
B) encourage us to perform important tasks
C) help to perfect the legal and penal system
D) help us adapt our behavior to the world surrounding us


答案和译文

31. B 32. C 33. C 34. B 35. D

译文

  请想象一个突然没有情感的世界——在那个世界上人类感觉不到爱和幸福,也感觉不到恐怖和憎恨。试想这种变化的后果。人们也许不能活下去:既不知道喜悦也不知道快乐,既不知道焦虑也不知道恐惧,他们可能会不断重复伤害自己的行为,就像不断重复对他们有益的行为一样。他们什么也学不到:他们不能从经验中受益,因为这个没有情感的世界既无奖励也无惩罚。人类社会很快会消失:因为人们可能相互伤害,就像相互帮助和支持一样。人际关系不复存在:在一个没有朋友和敌人的世界里,伙伴间不可能有婚姻和爱,群体间也没有纽带。社会经济支柱被摧毁:因为挣1000万美元同挣10美元一样不高兴,所以没有工作动力。实际上 ,做任何事都有动力。因为正如我们马上会看到的,动力意味着享有它们的一种能力。

  在这样一个世界上,人类生存下去的可能性几乎为零,因为情感是我们生存和应变的基本手段。情感以一种重要的方式为我们构建了世界。作为个人,我们以情感为基础对事物进行分类。确实,我们要考虑物体的长度、形状、大小或质地,但比起它为我们做过什么或能做什么——伤害我们、令我们吃惊、使我们生气或者使我们快乐,物体的物理特征就退居其次了。在家庭、团体和社会中,我们的划分也带情感色彩。源于对事物及事件情感的经历,我们产生了对事物和行为“好”与“坏”的社会认同感,我们把这种分类用于社会生活的每一方面——从我们吃的食物穿的衣服,到信守诺言及我们的群体认可哪些人。事实上,社会利用我们情感的反应和态度——如忠诚、道德、自豪、羞耻、内疚、恐惧和贪婪等——才得以维持。社会对做重要工作的人——如外科医生——给予很高的报酬,把有非凡业绩或在危险职业中有功劳的人——如战争中驾驶战斗机的人——尊为英雄,而且运用法律和刑法制度使人们不敢从事反社会活动。



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